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Pregnancy and Diabetes
Diabetes in pregnant women poses problems for the mother and the baby. Women with prolonged diabetes may have menstrual problems and difficulty in conceiving. While, pregnancy itself worsens diabetic control and may cause certain diabetic complications to progress in mother. Maternal diabetes is also hazardous for the baby and carries an increased risk for miscarriage and major congenital malformations.
Gestational diabetes is found in woman during pregnancy period. Gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes in mother affects the size of the new born baby. If sugar levels in mother are high, the baby gets too much nourishment and overgrows than normal size. This condition is known as macrosomia or 'fat baby'. Macrosomia can cause complications to both mother and baby at the time of delivery.
What are the risks to the baby?
A baby who gets mare amount of sugar than required from their mother's blood accumulates these excess glucose as fats around their shoulders and trunk. This makes them difficult to derive vaginally. Your doctor will have to perform a caesarean or have to deliver the baby early.
Other risk factors are
Damage to baby's shoulders during delivery.
Low blood sugar in baby at the time of birth.
Higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life of the baby.
Chances of developing jaundice.
Increased chances of major birth defects.
What are the risks to mother?
- Caesarean delivery and its complications.
- Pregnancy related high blood pressure.
- Urinary infections.
- Chance of developing diabetes in later period of life.
- Chances of kidney diseases.
- Possible worsening of eye diseases.
How can you avoid complications?
Diabetic complications during pregnancy can be avoided if you can manage your blood sugar with proper medication and monitoring.
Woman with diabetes should keep their blood sugar under control three to six months before conception.
- Quit smoking/alcohol.
- Home blood glucose monitoring.
- Diet control/ Folate supplementation.
- Regular exercise.
- Fetal monitoring by ultrasound scan.
- Accurate insulin regimen.
During your pregnancy, contact your doctor if you have:
- Vaginal bleeding.
- Sharp back pain.
- Burning or painful urination.
- An infection.
- Dizziness or fainting.
- Rapid weight gain.
- Swelling in the hands, face or feet.
- Severe nausea with high blood sugar.
- A decrease in your baby's movement.
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