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Many people often ignore type 2 diabetes but it can worsen if neglected for long period. Being a diabetic patient, you can invite many other diseases or complications. Many times these complications develop gradually, but they can be life-threatening. Controlling diabetes through diet, exercise and medicines is therefore very important.
Some common type 2 diabetes complications:
- Heart disease: Heart is one of the most important body organs. Diabetes increases the risk of many cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, heart attack, chest pain (angina), stroke, high blood pressure (hypertension) and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis). The risk of stroke is increased two to three times in people with diabetes and the death rate is increased by four times in people suffering from diabetes.
- Neuropathy: Nerve damage from diabetes is too common and leads to neuropathy which is called as diabetic neuropathy. Too much sugar in the blood can damage walls of blood vessels that nourish nerves especially of the legs. Numbness, burning or pain usually occurs at the tips of the toes or fingers. It gradually spreads upward and affects other body organs. When nerve involved in digestion process is damaged, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea can occur. It is also observed that some men face the problem of erectile dysfunction.
- Eye problems: Diabetes damages the blood vessels of the retina of the eye and leads to diabetic retinopathy. There is major possibility of blindness caused due to retinopathy. Some other eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma can also be developed due to high blood sugar levels.
- Kidney damage: Also termed as nephropathy, it is the condition when kidney is unable to perform its functions. Kidney has many blood vessels which help remove waste product from the body. And diabetes affects these blood vessels which disables the excretion. In severe cases, kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease can occur which needs to be treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Foot complications: Nerve damage in the foot leads to neuropathy and causes numbness in the feet. Poor blood flow is also possible due to diabetes. If it's not treated in early stages you may have to replace toes, foot or even a leg.
- Mental problems: Mental health gets badly affected due to high blood sugar levels. You may experience stress, anxiety and depression due to diabetes. More seriously, there is increased risk of Alzheimer's disease for type 2 diabetes patients. This may happen as a result of insufficient blood supply of blood to the brain due to blockage of blood supplying vessels.
- Skin conditions: People with type 2 diabetes are susceptible to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. These infections should be treated in early stages to prevent the further consequences. Gum infections are also common in those people so, maintain good oral hygiene.
- Osteoporosis: Type 2 diabetes may lead to lowering of bone density which often leads to osteoporosis.
Hearing loss, gastroparesis and ketoacidosis are few other diabetes complications that you should be aware of.